1.There is a consensus among the scholars that if a pregnant or breastfeeding woman is not affected by fasting, fasting is not too difficult for her and she does not fear for her foetus or child, then she is obliged to fast and it is not permissible for her not to fast.
2.If the woman fears for herself or her child because of fasting, and fasting is difficult for her, then she is allowed not to fast.

Because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has relieved the traveller of half of the prayer and He has relieved the traveller, pregnant and nursing mothers of the duty to fast.” (Abu Dawood, 2408; At-Tirmidhi, 715; al-Nasaa’i, 2315; and Ibn Maajah, 1667, classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood).

But the scholars differ on how pregnant or breastfeeding women should pay back their fast.
 The popular views are listed below:

View #1 – That if they fear for themselves, they have to make up the fast only, and if they fear for their children then they have to make up the fasts and feed one poor person for each day (i.e the expiation). This is the view of Imam Malik, Ash-Shaaf’i and Ahmad.[ At-Tuhfah vol.3 page402]
View #2– That they have to make up the fasts only and no need to pay any expiation. This is the view of Imam Abu Haneefah and his companions, Al-Awzaai, Abu Thawr, Abu ‘Ubaid, Ath-Thawr and the modern Saudi scholars. [Check Bidaayatul-Mujtahid (1/446), Jaami’ Ah’kaamun- Nisaai (2/394) and Fataawa Al-lajnah Ad-Daaimah (10/226)]. They based their view on the fact that the traveller is mention alongside a pregnant woman and a breastfeeding mother in the hadith quoted above and their situation is also similar to that of sick person. As such, they should repay their fast like those mentioned.
View #3 – It is the opposite of view #2. That they have to feed the poor ( expiation only), and do not have to make up the fasts. This is the view of Ibn ‘Abbaas, Ibn ‘Umar, Saeed bn Jubayr, Is’haq and Sheik Albaani. This is the easiest and most correct opinion.
-Imagine a woman who has been between delivery and breastfeeding for 3years. Making up missed fasts of 90days will be an arduous and taxing task for her. But feeding 90 people at once or per day will relieve her of the burden.
Of course, this is what the Shariah preaches because the essence of Fiqh is to make things easy for the people. Allah says, ” Allah intends for you ease and he does not want to make things difficult for you” [Baqorah:184].
*Abu Dawood (2318) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas said “those who can fast with difficulty” [Surah Baqarah 2:184] was a concession granted to old men and old women who find it difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feed one poor person for each day instead, and the same for pregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid for their children – they may not fast and may feed (the poor) instead. [ Ibn Jaarud(381), Bayhaaqi (4/230), Ir’waaul-ghaleel (4/18)].  An-Nawawi also said: its isnaad is hasan. 
This statement of Ibn Abbas will take a marfoo’ status (as if it is from the Prophet) because he is explaining a verse of the Qur’an as it is well known among scholars of hadith and Usool Fiqh. [Please check Tadreebur-Raawi (1/192-193), Muqaddimah of Ibn As-salaah (page24)].
* Ibn ‘Abbaas(may Allaah be pleased with him) used to say to a freed slave mother of his who was pregnant: “You are like one who cannot fast, so you have to pay the fidyah but you do not have to make up the fasts.” Ad-Daaraqutni classed its isnaad as saheeh, as stated by Al-Haafiz in At-Talkhees.
*Ibn Umar was asked regarding a pregnant woman who fears for her unborn child (due to her fasting/staying hungry for a long while). Ibn Umar said "Ask her to abandon fasting and instead feed a poor person one mudd (approx. half kilogram) of wheat (for per fast which she misses) [Sunan Al-Kubra of Imam Bayhaqi (4/230) with an authentic chain]
*It was reported that Ibn Umar’s wife asked him regarding her fasting while she was pregnant to which he replied,

ﺃﻓﻄﺮﯼ، ﺃﻃﻌﻤﯽ ﻋﻦ ﮐﻞ ﯾﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﮑﯿﻨﺎً ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻀﯽ .”

“Leave fasting and feed one poor person per day instead and you do not have to make up your missed fasts later on” [ Sunan Daraqutni (1/207; No 2363) with an authentic chain].
Nafi’ reports that one of Ibn Umar's daughter was married to a Quraishi and was pregnant. (During Ramadan while fasting) she experienced thirst so IbnUmar commanded her to break her fast and instead feed a poor person ” [Sunan Ad-Daraqutni (1/207; No: 2364) with an authentic chain].
* A Taabi’, Saeed ibn Jubayr says regarding a pregnant or breastfeeding woman who fears for her child or her health due to fasting ; that such a woman is to avoid fasting and instead feed a poor person per fast and they don't even have to make up for their fasts later on. [MusannafAbdur-Razzaq 4/216 No: 7555; with an authentic chain].
These pieces of evidence show that view#3 is the most correct. Allah knows best.
-Meanwhile, the woman can gather the number of poor people equalling the missed Ramadan fasts and feed them at once like the practice of Anas and it is not necessary the poor to be fed should be fasting as people do say *_”o ye ko bo alaawe (she should feed a fasting person)”._
But, what we should say is, “o ye ko bo alaini( she should feed a poor person)” because if it is a wealthy “alaawe (fasting person)” that is fed then it contradicts what the shariah said which is a miskeen (alaini).
It was related that Anas was weak from fasting (Ramadan) a particular year (due to senility). He prepared a basin of porridge and called on thirty poor people. He fed them until they are filled. [Narrated by Ad-Daraqutni with a saheeh Isnaad].
~Da’wah Board MSSN UNILAG


There is Nothing More Beneficial For The Servant Than Submitting To The Decisions Of Allaah – By Imaam Ibnul Qayyim

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تَكۡرَهُواْ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَهُوَ خَيۡرٌ لَّڪُمۡ‌ۖ وَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تُحِبُّواْ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
And it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.” [AI-Baqarah, 2:216]
There is for the servant -in this Aayah- a number of insightful guidelines, underlying benefits and advantages [of submitting to Allaah’s decisions]; for indeed if he knows that Al-Makrooh [i.e. what is hated] can bring forth Al-Mahboob [i.e. what is beloved], and vice versa, then neither would he feel safe from the harm that might occur from something that makes him happy nor would he lose hope whilst expecting a final source of happiness from a situation of harm. That is because he does not have [infinite] knowledge of the Awaaqib [i.e. the final outcomes], but Allaah knows that which he does not know.
There is nothing more beneficial for him than fulfilling Allaah’s commands, even if it is difficult for him in the beginning and his soul dislikes it, because all its end results will be good – a means to happiness, pleasure and joy. Likewise, there is nothing more harmful for him than doing what he has been forbidden, even if his soul desires and inclines towards it, for indeed all its end results [will lead to] pain, grief, evil and calamities. A distinguishing characteristic of [sound] intellect is that it prefers to bear little pain whose end results will lead to great enjoyment and abundant good, and it avoids that little enjoyment whose end results will lead to great pain and prolonged evil. The observations of an ignorant person do not permit him to [pay attention to the true or real] goals behind events that occur from the very beginning of an affair; but as for the sensible smart person, he always looks at the [true or real] goals behind those events. He looks at the praiseworthy and unpraiseworthy goals that are not obvious [to the ignorant one]. He sees what is forbidden as tasty food that is mixed with deadly poison; therefore, whenever he is urged towards eating that food due to its tastiness, he is turned away due to the poison in it. As for the commandments, he sees them as bitter medication that will lead to physical well-being and cure. Therefore, whenever he is turned away from the medication due to its bitterness, he is then urged towards it due to its benefits.
However, this requires outstanding knowledge by way of which a person can perceive the [praiseworthy and unpraiseworthy goals] behind those events that occur from the very beginning of an affair, as well as firm patience that would enable him to bear the difficulties upon the path towards achieving the expected goals. If he does not have certainty and patience, it would be difficult for him to achieve that; but if he has firm certainty and patience, he would be facilitated with ease whilst bearing every difficulty in his pursuit of everlasting good and enjoyment.
Written by Abdullah Jallow

[Source: Al-Fawaa’id’ pages 203-204. abridged and slightly paraphrased]

And deeds will be in accordance with their Conclusions 

“A servant may act with regard to what the people see with the actions of the people of Paradise, but in reality he is from the people of the Fire; and he may act with regard to what the people see with the actions of the people of the Fire, when he is actually from the people of Paradise. And indeed, actions are in accordance with their conclusions.”[2]
So a person should not allow himself to be fooled by his own deeds, even if he is the most righteous of the righteous people. Rather, he should fear that he may have an evil end (conclusion). And judgment is not passed upon anyone that he is from the people of the Fire based upon his actions because the person does not know what he will be given as is concluding deeds. And this is clarified by ahadeeth of the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam, from a hadeeth of Ibn Masood (radiyAllaahu anh, that the ProphetsallAllaahualayhi wa sallam said),
إن أحدكم يجمع خلقه في بطن أمه أربعين يوماً نطفةً، ثم يكون علقة مثل ذلك، ثم يكون مضغةً مثل ذلك، ثم يرسل إليه الملك، فينفخ فيه الروح، ويؤمر بأربع كلمات‏:‏ بكتب رزقه، وأجله، وعمله، وشقي أو سعيد‏.‏ وإن أحدكم ليعمل بعمل أهل الجنة حتى ما يكون بينه وبينها إلا ذراع، فيسبق عليه الكتاب، فيعمل بعمل أهل النار فيدخلها، وإن أحدكم ليعمل بعلم أهل النار حتى ما يكون بينه وبينها إلا ذراع، فيعمل بعمل أهل الجنة فيدخلها‏
“The creation of each one of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days as a drop of fluid; then he becomes a clot for a similar period; then a piece of flesh for a similar period; and then the angel is sent to him and the soul is breathed into him. And he (the angel) is commanded to write four things: to write his provision and his life span and his actions and whether he would be a wretched person (a person of the Hellfire) or a fortunate person (a person of Paradise). And one of you performs the actions of the people of Paradise until there is nothing between him and it except a cubit and then the writing overcomes him and he acts with the actions of the people of the Hellfire and so he enters it.  And one of you may act with the actions of the people of the Fire until there is nothing between him and it except for a cubit (a forearm’s span) and then he acts with the actions of the people of Paradise, and so he enters it.” [1]
So, therefore, a person fears having an evil end (conclusion). And judgment of having an evil conclusion is not passed upon someone since the person does not know the conclusion that will be given to him, because tawbah (repentance) wipes away whatever came before it.
Say to the unbelievers, “If they desist (from their unbelief), then whatever came before will be forgiven for them.” (Sooratul-Anfaal (8), aayah 38)
So, actions are in accordance with their conclusions (that which is final from them).  However, from the subtle kindness of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, towards His servants, is that whoever lives upon good, then He gives him a good conclusion; and whoever lives upon evil, then He gives him an evil conclusion. So therefore, a person should act and apply the necessary means and should have good thoughts concerning Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.
And some people say, “I will repent before I die.” Then we say to him, “And do you know when you are going to die?” It is possible that you could die in a sudden moment such that you are not able to repent; and also, you do not know whether your repentance will be acceptable or not because repentance has conditions.
Footnotes :

[1] Hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 3208) and by Muslim (no. 2643). 

[2] Translator’s Side Point: Shaykh Al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) said in his notes to At-Tahaawiyyah with regard to this point: “This phrase is part of a hadeeth of Sahl ibn Saad as-Saaidee, reported by Ahmad and Al-Bukhaaree.” He mentions that he has verified it in his checking of the book As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aasim. The wording of this hadeeth in Bukhaaree (no. 6493) is part of a longer hadeeth; and the relevant wording here is that the Prophet sallAllaahualayhi wa sallam said,
إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ لَيَعْمَلُ فِيمَا يَرَى النَّاسُ عَمَلَ أَهْل الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّهُ لَمِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، وَيَعْمَلُ فِيمَا يَرَى النَّاسُ عَمَلَ أَهْل النَّارِ وَهْوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِخَوَاتِيمِهَا
At-Taleeqaat Al-Mukhtasarahalaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah At–Tahaawiyyah By Shaykh Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah

Translated by: Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Courtesy: AbdurRahman.org

​To Whom are the Deeds of a Child Written?

Question posed to Shaykh Ibn Baaz, rahimahullah:

Q. Are the deeds of a child who has not yet reached the age of puberty such as prayer, Hajj and the reading of the Qur’aan attributed to his parents or are they attributed to him?
A.  The good deeds of a child who has not yet reached the age of puberty and their rewards are for him and not for his parents or anyone else.  His parents are rewarded for having taught him to perform these deeds, for directing him to do good and for helping him in them.  This is indicated by the hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim, narrated by Ibn Abbaas, that a woman lifted a child to the Prophet, salallahu ‘alayhi wa salam, during his farewell Hajj and said:  “O Messenger of Allah, is there Hajj for him?”  He, salallahu ‘alayhi wa salam, replied:  “Yes, and there is reward for you.”The Prophet, salallahu ‘alayhi wa salam, informed us that the Hajj is for the child, and that his mother is rewarded for her Hajj with him.  Similarly, there is reward for others besides the child’s parents, for the good they do such as teaching orphans, relatives, servants and others, due to the Prophet’s, salallahu ‘alayhi wa salam, saying:  “For the one who guides to good, a reward similar to that of the one who performs it.”  Narrated in Saheeh Muslim.  This is because it is from the assisting one another in virtue and fearfulness of Allah and that He, Glory be to Him, rewards for this.
Shaykh Ibn Baaz, rahimahullah  [Fataawa Islaamiyyah: 4/526]

(Also in Islamic Fataawa Regarding the Muslim Child, page 15)


Beauty is a good thing. It gives you confidence, differentiates you among people and enhances your charisma. Allah (swt) is beautiful. His Prophet (saw) was grand in appearance. But beauty is not always good. It can be a blessing or a trial. 

On the day of judgement, Allah (swt) promised not to look at our appearances. He will only consider our deeds. And ultimately, those who earn His mercy through their good deeds will witness his eternal pleasure. 
If you are beautiful, know that it is a huge test. It may be your means to Allah’s pleasure and it may have been created as the reason of your doom. May Allah protect us from that. 
Remember Suratul Masad, the 111th chapter in the Qur’an? That Surah where Allah cursed Abu Lahhab! Did you know his ill destiny was hugely attributed to his beauty? 
Not in that manner you are thinking. I am not going to say he was cursed for his beauty.
From cradle, his face had an extreme blooming beauty. That attribute earned him the title Abu Lahhab- flame-like! 
You probably thought Allah named him Abu Lahhab. The people had given him that name. Like some will brand a typical soccer star ‘fire’, or a model, ‘hot’. 
Abu Lahhab chose his choice. He misled the people into denying the Prophet (saw) on the great day when the Prophet (saw) was saying to the people “Yaa Sabaahah! Yaa Sabaahah! and they almost responded. 
He was indeed a renowned man with great influence and his beauty was a core part of his charisma. He confused the people with the good personality Allah gave him and Allah cursed with that beauty. 
Abu Lahhab! Flamelike man condemned to burn in the blazing flames! May Allah protect us from that. Ameen. 
Beauty is not the only gift Allah endows people. What has he given you and how has it helped you become worthier among people? Will you choose to gain Allah’s displeasure through your gift or will you choose to gain His pleasure? 
Whatever Allah has given you- personality, skill, power, wealth, position, advantage- use it in his service. Do not gain his displeasure from it, lest you receive his curse while you do not know. 
Always remember that a servant may do a tiny righteous deed and gain Allah’s pleasure. And he may do something he thinks negligible and gain Allah’s displeasure. 
Eternal doom is incomprehensibly unbearable. Abu Lahhab’s curse came in a single moment. And Allah cursed him with his most prominent gift. May Allah never deny us His pleasure. Ameen. 
©Usamah Adenowo