Making up the missed ‘Eid Prayer

Is it permissible for the one who misses the ‘Eid prayer to make it up? And if so how is it to be made up?

The Permanent Committee for Scientific Research and Fatwa of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia headed by Ibn Baaz as stated in ‘Al-Fataawa’, vol. 8, pg. 306-307, nos. 2328 and 4517:

“The individual who misses the ‘Eid prayer and wants to make it up, then it is recommended for him to do so and he is to pray it according to its normal manner without being followed by a khutbah and this is what was stated by Maalik, ash-Shaafi’ee, Ahmad, an-Nakha’ee and other scholars.

The foundation for this is the statement of the Prophet صلّى اﻟﻠﻪَُّ عليه وسلّم :

‘If you come to the prayer, then approach it with tranquility and composure. Whatever you have caught from the prayer, then pray it and what has preceded you, then complete it.’

Also, what was narrated about Anas رضي اﻟﻠﻪّ عنه that:

‘If he missed the ‘Eid prayer with the Imaam, he would gather his family and servants, then ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi ‘Utbah, his servant, would lead them in prayer of two rak’ahs which he would make the takbeer in.’

And regarding the individual who arrives at the ‘Eid prayer while the Imaam is giving the khutbah, he is to listen to the khutbah then make up the prayer after. This is so that he gets the benefit of both (listening to the khutbah and making up the prayer as opposed to making up the prayer first and missing the khutbah).”

The Permanent Committee also stated:

“Whoever reaches the prayer and catches only the tashahhud with the Imaam of the two ‘Eid prayers, then he is to pray two rak’ahs after the Imaam gives the salaam and he does exactly what the Imaam does regarding the takbeer, recitation, rukoo’ and sujood.”

Source: The Legislative Rulings For ‘Eid-ul-Fitr – Shaykh ‘AbdulQaadir al-Junayd [e-Book]
mpubs.org publication

Translated by Abu Afnaan Muhammad ‘Abdullah

ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID

Praise be to God, who says (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ تَزَكَّى (14) وَذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى )

But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer(87:14-15). I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without partner, and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His servant and Messenger, who enjoined Zakat al Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. May  Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his families and all his companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the day of recompense.

As to what follow,

Dear faithful, I enjoin you and myself to fear Allah, the Almighty both outwardly and inwardly, Allah says:

”  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) ” {آل عمران :102}

“O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].” (3: 102)

Dear brothers in faith, the last part of Ramadan have some recommended acts of worship peculiar to it and among these is the zakatul-fitri which should performed close to the eidul-fitri. It is suppose to serve as reparation for any shortcoming in one’s fasting and provision for the needy. Today’s sermon is therefore titled:ZAKATUL-FITRI AND ETIQUETTES OF ‘EID.

Zaktul-Fitri: Definition of Terms

Linguistically the word zakat means: blessing, growth, purification and best of a material. Allah says: “But those will prosper who purify themselves.” (87: 14)

Allah also says:

(خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا) “

Of their goods,  take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; (9: 103)

Technically it is described as the obligatory due on wealth (Mugniy).

The word Fitr refers to break of fast, thus when it is attached to zakat as zakatul-fitri, it means the charity given at the end of Ramadan as purification for the body and soul.

Technically as well, zakatul-fitr could be described as the payable amount prescribed by the shariah to be paid by a Muslim as purification for his body and soul for himself and everyone he caters for, occasioned by breaking of fasting at the end of Ramadan in a manner prescribed.

Legal Classification

It is classified as a compulsory duty enjoined by the messenger of Allah (pbuh). Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet (pbuh) made Zakat ul-Fitr  compulsory on every slave, freeman, male, female, young and old among the Muslims; one Sa’ of dried dates or one Sa’ of barely, he ordered it should be paid before go out for the (eid) prayer.” (Bukhari)

The philosophy behind its legislation

Zakatul-fitri affects both the payer and the receiver, it purifies the person who fasted both rich and poor from obscenity and lewdness. It is likened to the sujudu-s-sahw (reparation prostration) which is used to restore or make up for any shortcomings in the fasting. As for the wealthy person who fasted, Allah purifies him, while the poor gets back provision beyond what he spent in his payment of the zakatul-fitr. Zakatul-Fitr also has addition benefit of blessing for both the payer and receiver. Ibn Abbas narrated thus: “The Prophet of Allah enjoined Zakat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.” (Abu Dawood & Ibn Majah)

In order to satisfy the purpose of enrichment for the poor and protect them from begging on the day of joy and celebration in the community, it must be paid before attendance of people at prayer. Ibn Umar (RA) said: “The messenger of Allah (pbuh) instructed us to pay the zakatul-fitr before people move out for prayer.” Ibn Umar used to pay to those who collect it, and they used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan.” (Bukhari)

The wisdom behind legislating the value to be a Sa’ as the basic quantity per head is that during the three days of eid and a few days thereafter people do not engage in occupational and trading activities, thus the poor man would not find who to employ him, as people are felicitating and resting after a month of fasting. And what is obtainable from a the measure of a saa’ used to make bread … would be adequate for a poor person for four days “(Nihaayatul Muhtaaj, 3/121). In addition, the quantity for Zakat al-Fitr is small and easier for people from most of their staple food, so that the largest possible number of people in a community could carry out this duty.  

Its payment in monetary value 💰

Value of a thing in the literal sense is the equivalent price.

Value in the technical understanding of the fuqahaa is of several definitions. In the definition of Ibn Hazm: “Value is the worth with which traders sell their goods, which is not exceeded except with a reason.” (Al-Muhalla). Ibn Hajar said: “the value of a thing is where the desire ends” (Fathul baari) Al-‘Adawiy describes it as “Value is the price with which people buy.”

Payment of Zakat in monetary value: There are two major opinions regarding this issue as follow:

1- Permissibility of using monetary value: this is the position of Abu hanifah, Sufyan thaoriy, Umar bn Abdul-Azeez, Hassan Al-basriy, Abu Yusuf, Abu Ja’far At-tohaawiy and others. Sufyan thaoriy said: “Using dates or barley is not a condition in Zakat al-Fitr, rather if the monetary value which is most beneficial for the poor is used, it is permissible, because the aim is to enrich the poor against begging as well as satisfy his need on this day (of eid)”

Qarah said: “We received a letter from Umar bin Abdul Azeez on Zakatul-Fitr directing that half of Sa’ to be given on every person, or its monetary value which is half a dirham. Al-Hasan said: It’s right to give dirhams in zakatul-fitr. Abu Ishaq said: “I met them giving zakatul fitri in dirhams equivalent to the value of the food.”

Their Proofs: The basis of charity in Islam is money. Allah says: “Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity” (9: 103). They added that the elucidation of the Prophet was to remove difficulty and not as restriction of obligation, because the Bedouins and nomads value money so much, they fall under those who are to pay zakat, therefore for them to give zakat out of their cattle or produce which is readily available seems easier for them. Also, consider that the Prophet declared that on five camels a sheep is due as zakat, whereas it a sheep is never found among camels, thus the word ‘sheep’ was only used to demonstrate the required worth.

Imam Al-baaniy said supporting use of monetary value: “… It is also the opinion of Ibn Taimiyah, he said in Al-Ikhtiyaaraat: “It is permissible to use monetary value for zakatul fitri …” Abu Haneefah said: “The essence of zakatul –fitri is to help the poor ones and cater for their needs in accordance with the prophet’s statement: “Enrich them against seeking –i.e- begging- this day” (Muslim)

Thus zakatul fitri aims to enrich the poor, enrichment could be achieved by giving of dates, grain foods, barley, as well as by giving money, infact, the monetary equivalent could be more beneficial with respect to attending to the need of the poor. Hence if the poor one needs food, then he could purchase it using the money, if he needs clothing or medicine, he could use it for whatever he needs, because the text clearly mentions enrichment, and money does all that. (Al-Mugniy, Ibn Qudaamah, 4/ 295)

2- Non-Permissibility of using monetary value: The proponents of this view hold that items are intended not value and justifying their position using the hadith narrated by Abu Saeed Al-Khudriy: “We, on behalf of every young or old, free man or slave (amongst us), used to take out during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as the Zakat of Fitr one sa’ of grain, or one sa’ of cheese or one sa’ of raisins. And we continued taking out these till Mu’awiya b. Abu Sufyan came to us for pilgrimage or ‘Umra, and addressed the people on the pulpit and said to them: I see that two mudds of zakat out of the wheat (red) of Syria is equal to one sa’ of dates. So the people accepted it. But Abu Sa’id said: I would continue to take out as I used to take out (before, i.e. one Sa’) as long as I live.” (Bukhari)

Etiquettes of Eid.🎊🎉

Eid is the day of gathering of people as a common practice. It is also named ‘Eid’ because it is an annual event.

Eid Prayer: It is commanded by the Prophet – pbuh- on every member of the Muslim community; males and females. Ibn Taimiyah categorized it as obligatory on every Muslim. This is the view of the Hanafi school, a section of the hanbalis and that of Ibn Qayyim.

Umm ‘Atiyya reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Etiquettes of ‘Eid:

1-      To eat before going to ‘eid using dates in odd numbers.

2-      To wear the best of clothes: Umar bought a silk cloak from the market, took it to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Take it and adorn yourself with it during the ‘Id and when the delegations visit you.” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) replied, “This dress is for those who have no share (in the Hereafter).” (Bukhari)

3-      The woman should attend the ‘eid without applying perfume or being exposed “… and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance.” The Prophet said: “Any woman who apply the perfume and passes by a group of people that they may perceive her scent, is a fornicator.” (Ahmad)

4-      It recommended to go to ‘eid taking a walk not by by riding except for those with inability or due to farness of the journey.

5-      It recommended as well to alternate the route to and from the ‘eid venue. Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) on the day of ‘Eid used to alternate or change the route.” (bukhari).

6-      It is permissible to share pleasantry and greeting and prayers on the day of ‘eid.

Some important notes on issues regarding ‘eid

1-      Caution must be made regarding free mixing between males and females.

2-      It is forbidden to have handshake with the opposite sex.

3-      Joining family ties is obligatory to the extent that breaking it is regarded as a grievous sin.

4-      Eid is a pleasurable occasion which binds the minds and removes hatred and discords etc.

 

Summarized Rulings Regarding Zakaah al-Fitr

  1. What is the ruling regarding Sadaqah al-Fitr?

Ibn Baaz said:

Zakaah al-Fitr is mandatory upon every Muslim, young or old, male or female, free or enslaved (al-Fataawaa 14/197).

  1. With what is the Zakaah al-Fitr given?

Ibn Baaz said:

A Saa’ (four handfuls) of food, dates, barely, raisins, and cheese; and according to the most correct opinion of the scholars, what is also included with these types is anything that the people nourish themselves with in their countries like rice, maze, millet and anything similar to these.

  1. What is the measure for Zakaah al-Fitr?

Ibn Baaz said:

What is mandatory for this is one Saa’ from the food of the country and its measurement is with Kilos—approximately three Kilos (al-Fataawaa 14-203).

  1. When is the time for giving Zakaah al-Fitr?

Ibn Baaz said:

It is given on the days of the 28th, 29th, and 30th as well as the night of ‘Eed.  It is also given in the morning of ‘Eed before the Prayer (al-Fataawaa 14/32-33).

  1. What is the reason for giving Zakaah al-Fitr?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

To show gratitude for the blessings of Allaah upon the servant regarding the breaking of the fast of Ramadaan and its completion (al-Fataawaa 18/257).

  1. Who is Zakaah al-Fitr given to?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

It is not to be given except to the poor (al-Fataawaa 18/259).

  1. What is the ruling on entrusting children or other than them with giving Zakaah al-Fitr on a person’s behalf?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

It is permissible for a person to authorize his children to give Zakaah al-Fitr on his behalf at its time even if he is in another country at the time for work (al-Fataawaa 18/262).

  1. Is it permissible for the poor to authorize someone else to take the Zakaah al-Fitr for him?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

It is permissible (al-Fataawaa 18/268).

  1. Is there a specific statement that should be made when giving Zakaah al-Fitr?

We do not know of any specific Du’aa (Supplication) that is said at the time of giving it (al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah 9/387).

  1. Is it permissible to give Zakaah al-Fitr in its worth (in money)?

Ibn Baaz said:

It is not permissible to give its worth (with cash) according to the opinion of many scholars due to its opposition to the direct statement of the Prophet—صلى الله عليه و سلم—and his companions—رضي الله عنهم (al-Fataawaa 14/32).

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

Giving it in cash will not suffice, because it has been prescribed to be given in food (al-Fataawaa 18/265).

  1. Is it permissible to give Zakaah al-Fitr in a country different from the one its giver is in?

Ibn Baaz said:

The Sunnah is to distribute it amongst the poor in the country of the one giving it and to not give it in cash in a different country so that he can enrich the poor from his country and satisfy their need (al-Fataawaa 14/213).

12.  Where is Zakaah al-Fitr given?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

Zakaah al-Fitr is dispensed in the land that you are in upon breaking the fast [of Ramadaan] even if it is far from your country.

  1. Is Zakaah al-Fitr given for a fetus?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

It is not given on the fetus’s behalf due to it being obligatory; rather it is given because it is highly recommended (al-Fataawa 18/263).

  1. Is it permissible to give Zakaah al-Fitr to Non-Muslim workers?

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

It is not permissible to give it to other than the poor from the Muslims (al-Fataawaa 18/285).

  1. Is the Zakaah al-Fitr for a single person given to just one individual or can it be dispersed amongst several people?

It is permissible to give the Zakaah al-Fitr for a single person to an individual just as it permissible to distribute it amongst a number of people (al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah 9/377).

  1. What is the ruling on the one who accepts Zakaah al-Fitr and then sells it?

If the one who took it was deserving of it, it is permissible for him to sell it upon receiving it (al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah 9/380).

  1. Delaying the giving of the Zakaah al-Fitr to after ‘Eid without an excuse.

Ibn ‘Uthaymiin said:

Delaying it until after the Salaah is Haraam (impermissible) and it will not suffice (al-Fataawaa 18/266).