Q 5: Is it permissible for the Imam to perform Du`a’ (supplication to Allah) after performing the prescribed prayer while all the people are still present?
A: Acts of worship are Tawqifiy (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion). Therefore, it is not legally permitted to say that this act of worship is permissible with regard to its origin, number, manner or place without legal evidence for saying so.
We do not know any Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) where he did this, either from his sayings, doings or what gains his consent. All blessings are in following his guidance. The guidance of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is established with authentic proofs that denote what he (peace be upon him) did after Taslim (salutation of peace ending the Prayer). The successors, the Companions of the Prophet and those who followed them in righteousness followed his example in this regard. Whoever innovates anything other than the guidance of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), his acts will be rejected. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.”
The Imam who makes Du`a’ (supplication to Allah) after Taslim and the followers pronounce Ta’min (saying: “Amin”) after his Du`a’ should be asked to bring evidence that proves his deeds. Otherwise, his acts will be rejected.
Therefore, we will give an outline about the guidance of the Prophet (peace be upon him) after Taslim. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) pronounced Taslim, he used to ask Allah for forgiveness three times and say: “O Allah, You are the Grantor of security, and security comes from You. You are Blessing, O You Who have majesty and nobility)!”
Al-Awza`y was asked about the manner of the Prophet’s asking for forgiveness. He answered: “He said: ‘I seek the forgiveness of Allah. I seek the forgiveness of Allah.'” This is the narration of Muslim, Al-Tirmidhy and Al-Nasa’y. But Al-Nasa’y said that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to say that upon finishing his prayer, and then mentioned the Hadith.
In the narration reported by Abu Dawud: “After finishing his prayer, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to ask Allah for forgiveness three times and say: O Allah! You are Peace.”
In the narration reported by Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa’y on the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) pronounced salutation, he used to say: O Allah: You are peace, and peace comes from You, blessed are You, Possessor of Glory and Honor.”
Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported on the authority of Warrad the scriber of the servant of Al-Mughirah ibn Shu`bah that he said that Al-Mughirah ibn Shu`bah dictated to me a letter to Mu`awiyah that When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) finished the prayer and pronounced salutation he uttered (this supplication): There is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah. He is alone, Who has no partner. To Him belongs the sovereignty and to Him praise is due and He is Potent over everything. O Allah! No one can withhold what You give, or give what You withhold, and the riches cannot avail a wealthy person with You.
Muslim reported in his Sahih on the authority of `Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with them both) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: He used to say at the end of every prayer after pronouncing salutation (these words): There is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah. He is alone. There is no partner with Him. Sovereignty belongs to Him and He is Potent over everything. There is no might or power except with Allah. There is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah and we do not worship but Him alone. To Him belong all bounties, to Him belongs all Grace, and to Him is worthy praise accorded. There is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah, to Whom we are sincere in devotion, even though the unbelievers should disapprove it. He added: The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to say so after pronouncing salutation at the end of every prayer.
In another narration reported also by Muslim the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “He who recites after every prayer: Subhan-Allah (Allah is free from imperfection) thirty-three times; Al-hamdu lillah (praise be to Allah) thirty-three times; Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest) thirty-three times; and completes a hundred with: La ilaha illallahu, wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu, wa Huwa `ala kulli shai’in Qadir (there is no true god except Allah. He is One and He has no partner with Him. His is the sovereignty and His is the praise, and He is Omnipotent), will have all his sins pardoned even if they may be as the foam on the surface of the sea.”
He who wants to know more supplications should read supplications in the comprehensive books like Jami` Al-‘Ousoul, Majm` Al-Zawa’d, Al-Matalib Al-`Aliyah Bi Zawa’d Al-Masanid Al-Thamaniyah and others.
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’
Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz
…May Allah give us a better understanding & guide us to accept the truth